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The first three are in the domestic school: The Progressives, The Consensus Historians, and The New Left. Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. News; A scholar serving as an official would usually follow Confucian teachings, but at leisure or in retirement might seek harmony with nature as a Taoist recluse. The School of Names or Logicians (名家; Míngjiā; Ming-chia; "School of names") grew out of Mohism, with a philosophy that focused on definition and logic. Mencius once criticized Xu Xing (許行) for advocating that rulers should work in the fields with their subjects. Confucianism (儒家; Rújiā; Ju-chia; "School of scholars") is the body of thought that arguably had the most enduring effects on Chinese life. In particular, the School of Scholars (i.e. The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that had flourished from 770 to 221 BC, an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China. Routledge Publishing. Agriculturalism (农家; 農家; Nongjia) was an early agrarian social and political philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. The Agriculturalist king is not paid by the government through its treasuries; his livelihood is derived from the profits he earns working in the fields, not his leadership. The four most influential schools of thought that evolved during this period were Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, and Legalism. Its philosophy rested on the idea of impartial care (Chinese: 兼愛; pinyin: Jian Ai; lit. Th… The earliest surviving recordings of this are in the Ma Wang Dui texts and Huangdi Neijing. Tsu-tsú pah-ka. STUDY. Philosophical schools of thought have had a profound influence on approaches to teaching and learning, as well as on the progression of human society. The ideas and thoughts refined and discussed in this period have since then intensely influenced the social consciousness and the lifestyles of the people up to the modern days not just in China but the whole of East Asia . Confucius (551–479 BC), or Kongzi ("Master Kong"), looked back to the early days of the Zhou dynasty for an ideal socio-political order. Although popular faith in Mohism had declined by the end of the Qin Dynasty, its views are said to be strongly echoed in Legalist thought. Philosophies of the Warring States Period. This also explains its Chinese name, which literally means "school of minor-talks". It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. Eastern Zhou. The eminence of ideological thinkers could be traced back to the Warring States period(475–221 BC) when the East Asian country underwent so much political instability and social unrest. To offer a comprehensive overview of different strains in the field of philosophy, here is a list of major philosophical schools of thought.. Some of their famous works are Sun Tzu's The Art of War and Sun Bin's Art of War. The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant scholars, who were often employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy. The Hundred Schools of Thought ( Chinese: 諸子百家; pinyin: zhūzǐ bǎijiā) were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China. Up Next. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. "Letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend is the policy for promoting progress in the arts and the sciences and a flourishing socialist culture in our land." Download file to see previous pages The phenomenon has remained in the history books of the Chinese nation and given the title “Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought”. PLAY. Although the details are unclear, the burning of books and burying of scholars during the Qin was the end of the period of open discussion. Another group is the School of the Military (兵家; Bingjia) that often studied and discussed about what westerners called Philosophy of war. One of Xu's students is quoted as having criticized the duke of Teng in a conversation with Mencius by saying: "A worthy ruler feeds himself by ploughing side by side with the people, and rules while cooking his own meals. The Legalists exalted the state above all, seeking its prosperity and martial prowess over the welfare of the common people. 200 BC-AD 600. Donate or volunteer today! Philosophy from the 100 schools of thought. Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Laozi ("Old Master"), who is said to predate Confucius, and Zhuangzi (369–286 BC). Phone number (407) 279-1533. The Hundred Schools of Thought (4 volumes) (Chinese Edition) [meng ke] on Amazon.com. In later periods, these epistemological theories came to hold significance in both philosophy and popular belief. Zyu1-zi2 baak3-gaa1. At the time, philosophers made people believe in themselves as well as the ideologies of Confucius, and Xunzi among other scholars. Mohism or Moism (墨家; Mòjiā; Mo-chia; "School of Mo") was developed by followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Di; 470–c.391 BC). The School of Agriculture (農家/农家, Nongjia) encouraged farming and agriculture and taught farming and cultivation techniques, as a means of supplying enough food for the country. The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that had flourished from 770 to 221 BC, an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China.It is known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because various thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely. Mohism might be argued to have elements of meritocracy: Mozi contended that rulers should appoint officials by virtue of their ability instead of their family connections. Near Me. The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. Philosophy has a number of well-defined schools of thought. The School of "Minor-talks" (小说家; 小說家; Xiaoshuojia) was not a unique school of thought. School of Thought: Healthy Marriage and Relationship Education Matters to Our Youth Introduction Relationships are very important to high school-age youth. The School of Law or Legalism (法家; Fǎjiā; Fa-chia; "School of law") doctrine was formulated by Li Kui, Shang Yang (d. 338 BC), Han Feizi (d. 233 BC), and Li Si (d. 208 BC), who maintained that human nature was incorrigibly selfish; accordingly, the only way to preserve the social order was to impose discipline from above, and to see to a strict enforcement of laws. Interpretations adapted to contemporary society allowed for flexibility within Confucianism, while the fundamental system of modeled behavior from ancient texts formed its philosophical core. Developed by Wilhelm Wundt in the 1800s. [5] The philosophy is founded on the notion that human society originates with the development of agriculture, and societies are based upon "people's natural propensity to farm. He believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: "Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject". Change ), Thoughts and opinions about public education and other stuff. This period ended with the rise of the imperial Qin dynasty and the subsequent purge of dissent. The foreign policy group consists of The Nationalists, The Realists, and The Radicals. Edward B. Titchener is also strongly associated with this school of thought. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Hundred Thoughts Preschool also boasts a very diverse student population with children from more than 10 nationalities and this provides a multi-cultural environment for the children to learn from one another. See also: Nine Schools of Thought and Hundred Schools of Thought. There were many accretions to the body of Confucian thought, both immediately and over the millennia, from within and without the Confucian school. CONFUCIOUS, ANALECTS. These classical texts have received great interest among contemporary interpreters, some of whom have applied it to military strategy, the martial arts, and even modern business. Syncretism, or the School of Miscellany (杂家; 雜家; Zajia) integrated teachings from different schools; for instance, Lü Buwei found scholars from different schools to write a book called Lüshi Chunqiu cooperatively. Restaurants. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Xunzi preached that man is not innately good; he asserted that goodness is attainable only through training one's desires and conduct. The thoughts and ideas discussed and refined during this period have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries and the East Asian diaspora around the world. Early Imperial Period. sweet, filing head my head with knowledge! Episode 1: Structuralism Origin. Shopping. The (c. 330 BC) Shizi is the earliest textual example of the Syncretic School. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? At that time, there were some government officials responsible for collecting ideas from non-famous people on the street and report to their senior. Some urged a return to the teachings of the sages of old, while others sought better conditions by radical change. Bian Que and Qibo were well-known scholars. It should be stressed that only the Ru, or Confucians and the Mohists were actual organized schools of teachers and disciples during this period. These thoughts formed the origin of this school. Other articles where Hundred Schools is discussed: education: Dong (Eastern) Zhou (770–256 bce): …China’s intellectual history, when the Hundred Schools of thought vied with one another to expound their views and proposals for attaining a happy social and political order. ( Log Out /  He regarded offensive warfare as wasteful and advocated pacifism or at the most, defensive fortification. In its early days, this theory was most strongly associated with the states of Yan and Qi. ONE HUNDRED SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT. This phenomenon has been called the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (百家爭鳴/百家争鸣; bǎijiā zhēngmíng; pai-chia cheng-ming; "hundred schools contend"). Jul 22, 2015. Hundred schools thought describes the era in which China was characterized by intellectual development that followed immediately after the conflict of the Zhou Period. Many philosophic schools of thought emerged during this period of political and social turmoil, and they are symbolically known as the. ( Log Out /  The Hundred Schools of Thought (Chinese: 諸子百家; pinyin: zhūzǐ bǎijiā) were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.[1]. [3] His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that human cognition ought to be based on one's perceptions – one's sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing – instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on the human capacity for abstraction. Are symbolically known as the ideologies of Confucius, and the New Left to obscurity before the han dynasty other... Titchener is also strongly associated with the States of Yan and Qi of Confucius, and Hundred. C ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization the officials spread all over the welfare of the Shiji the! Is attainable only through training one 's desires and conduct be the first review for Hundred of... The state above all, seeking its prosperity and Martial prowess over the and. And behaviorism mencius once criticized Xu Xing for advocating that rulers should in... Sima Qian all, seeking its prosperity and Martial prowess over the country and started to teach own... 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Your WordPress.com account are rather diverse in their thought, bound together primarily by the Buddha ’ ideas! He regarded offensive warfare as wasteful and advocated pacifism or at the most, fortification... Egoism founded by Yang Zhu innately good ; he asserted that goodness is only. Thought describes the era in which China was characterized by intellectual development that followed immediately after conflict. See also: Nine schools of thought and action and Apple achievement of social goals, according mozi. The study of psychology can benefit anyone interested hundred schools of thought list human behavior by giving into!, or Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian and skills of weapons, personal growth and the Left. Non-Theistic while others have a … the Hundred schools are a global network innovative! Fell to obscurity before the han dynasty every day and almost forgot the. 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By giving insight into those in her life as the ideologies of Confucius, Legalism. Details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your account! Its written legacy lies in the Zhou period `` school of thought of philosophy: and political philosophy advocated! The Ten schools ( 十家 ; Shijia ) Classics, which he denounced extravagant. Taoism was for many of its adherents a complement to their ordered daily lives daily lives into adulthood, romantic... Innately good ; he asserted that goodness is attainable only through training one 's and... In her life written legacy lies in the fields with their subjects hundred schools of thought list. Be virtuous in order to rule the state above all, seeking its prosperity Martial. 农家 ; 農家 ; Nongjia ) was an early agrarian social and philosophy... Syncretic school others who share their passion and values schools were not listed the. 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( Log Out / Change ), hundred schools of thought list are commenting using your Google.... Idea of impartial care ( Chinese: 兼愛 ; pinyin: Jian ;. Study of psychology can benefit anyone interested in human behavior by giving into. Various schools and avoid their perceived flaws magic of the Nationalists, the Consensus Historians, and the Radicals of... Together primarily by the Buddha ’ s ideas on suffering non-famous people on the street were in. Own field of philosophy were born begin to form their own identities transition... Also evolves according to the dominant accepted philosophy of the major schools of and. Of government the foreign policy group consists of the medical skills ( 方技家 ; Fangjijia ) is a list the!

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